Connecticut Chapter

Collateral Consequences in the State of Connecticut

          Since January 1, 2010, Connecticut’s implementation of the “Raise the Age” legislation has resulted in significant reductions of collateral consequences for individuals under eighteen.  The “Raise the Age” legislation increased the maximum age for juvenile court jurisdiction from fifteen to seventeen, as of July 1, 2012.[1]  These increases reduce collateral consequences for this population because of the confidentiality protections and erasure provisions available in the Superior Court for Juvenile Matters (“juvenile court”).[2]

            While Connecticut statutes require that juvenile records remain confidential, there are exceptions that may result in collateral consequences.[3]

Understanding the Justice System

            Connecticut has twelve juvenile courts in its statewide system.[4]  There are three state-operated juvenile detention centers located in Hartford, Bridgeport, and New Haven, as well as alternative-to-detention programs in Hartford and Hamden.[5]  Prior to adjudication, juveniles may be referred to a wide range of community-based services.  For juveniles who are adjudicated delinquent, there are state-operated and contracted residential facilities as well as community-based programs.[6]  Juveniles who are tried as adults are housed in adult correctional facilities.[7]

            In the state of Connecticut, individuals under the age of eighteen who are charged with delinquent or criminal acts may be classified as juveniles or adults, depending on the severity of the offense.Currently, the juvenile offender classification applies when the individual is seventeen years old or younger at the time of the offense and has not been transferred to adult court.[8]  Juvenile offenders are tried in juvenile court and have rights to confidentiality and erasure.[9] 

            A serious juvenile offender[13]is defined as any child convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious felony, which includes crimes such as arson, kidnapping and rape.[14]  Upon conviction for a serious juvenile offense, a juvenile may be committed up to a maximum of four years.[15]  “Serious juvenile repeat offender” means any child charged with the commission of any felony if such child has previously been convicted as delinquent or otherwise convicted at any age for two violations of designated felonies.[16]  If the juvenile is fourteen years of age or older and has committed certain serious felonies such as murder, the juvenile will automatically be transferred to the Superior Court and charged as an adult.[17]

Adjudication Process

            Prior to January 2010, Connecticut was one of three states, along with North Carolina and New York, that drew the line of juvenile court jurisdiction at age fifteen.[18]  However, in 2007, Connecticut passed Public Act 07-4, which amended the maximum age of juvenile court jurisdiction in Connecticut.[19]  Under this law, ethe maximum age of juvenile court jurisdiction was  raised to , effective January 1, 2010sixteen.   As of July 1, 2012, seventeen year olds are also now tried in the juvenile justice system, rather than in the adult criminal justice system. [20] 

            A juvenile is either adjudicated through a plea arrangement or at an adjudication hearing where the court can, after trial, enter a finding of delinquency or find the juvenile not delinquent.[21]  After a juvenile is adjudicated delinquent, the court determines at a disposition hearing whether the juvenile will be:  (1) dismissed with a warning, (2) conditionally discharged, (3) placed on probation, (4) placed on probation with a suspended commitment to the Department of Children and Families, or (5) committed to the Department of Children and Families.[22]  When a juvenile is adjudicated delinquent, this is not considered to a criminal conviction.[23]

Notification of Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Arrest & Court Records

            There is no statutory requirement that judges, attorneys, etc. notify the accused about collateral consequences.

Treatment of Juvenile Arrest Records

Are photographs and fingerprints routinely collected?

            Connecticut authorizes the collection of fingerprints and photographs of arrested juveniles.[24]

Is DNA routinely collected?

            Connecticut law does not authorize the collection of DNA from juveniles at any time, unless the case is transferred to adult court. 

Are juvenile arrest records made public?

            Juvenile arrest records in Connecticut are confidential and are not made public, unless an exception exists or by court order.[25]

What juvenile arrest data may be distributed?

            When a juvenile is charged as an adult for a capital or class A felony, the juvenile’s name, photograph and custody status can be released to the public.[26]  Additionally, law enforcement officials may disclose information concerning a juvenile that has escaped from a detention center or from a facility that the juvenile was committed to by the court or for a juvenile in which an arrest warrant has been issued for the commission of a felony.[27]

Do police have the authority to distribute juvenile arrest data to employers? State agencies? Schools?

            Juvenile arrest information can be released to judicial branch employees who require access to such records for the performance of their duties or to state agency employees who are directly involved in the delinquency proceedings; the provision of services to the child; or the design and delivery of treatment programs.[28]    

            The police are not authorized to release juvenile arrest data to employers.[29]  However, the police do have the authority to release certain arrest records to the superintendent of schools where the juvenile lives.[30]  Connecticut law requires the police department to report arrests to the superintendent of schools for crimes that are a felony, class A misdemeanor and certain firearm violations.[31]  Once the police department has released this information to the superintendent, the superintendent can release the information to the building principal of the school that the student attends.[32]  The building principal can release this information to special services staff for the purpose of: (1) assessing the risk posed by the student to himself, other students, school employees and school property; (2) modifying the student’s educational program; or (3) disciplinary action.[33]

May police sell arrest records to private data mining companies?

            No, police may not sell juvenile arrest records to private data mining companies.

Treatment of Juvenile Court Records

At what point in the court process do records begin?                                               

            In Connecticut, records begin when an arrest is made, and the police issue a Juvenile Summons and prepare a Police Arrest Report that describes the incident, lists the charges, specifies a court appearance date, and includes a promise to appear signed by the parents.[34]

Who can access juvenile arrest and court records?                           

            Connecticut provides access to juvenile records to judicial branch employees who require access to the records in the performance of their duties; authorized employees of state and federal agencies;[35]the attorney representing the child, including the Division of Public Defender; parents and guardians until the age of majority; the juvenile; law enforcement officials and prosecutorial officials conducting criminal investigations; and state and federal agencies that are providing services related to the collection of money due or funding to support the service needs of juveniles.[36]  These actors are not allowed to further disclose juvenile records, except that information contained in such records may be disclosed in connection with bail or sentencing reports in open court during criminal proceedings involving the subject of such information.[37]

            Records may also be released to a court-ordered evaluator or mental health treatment provider,[38]and by court order to any person with a legitimate interest in the information,as well as the victims of the crime. [39] .   Records may also be released to community-based youth service bureau officials, if they are providing services directly to the child or creating or providing treatment or diversionary programs for juvenile offenders. [40]


What information does a juvenile court record contain?                                          

            A juvenile court record includes records from law enforcement agencies; the judicial branch, including the child’s juvenile probation officer; any agency that has contracted with the judicial branch to provide services to juveniles; and any medical, psychological, psychiatric or other studies contracted by the juvenile branch.[41]

Sealing and Expunging Delinquency Files or Records  

Do juveniles have the ability or opportunity to seal or expunge arrest and court records?

            Juveniles can petition for “erasure” of court records.[42]  If a juvenile case is dismissed, court records are to be erased immediately, without the filing of a petition.[43]  If a nolle prosequi is entered, the court records will be erased thirteen months after the nolle was entered.[44]  If a case has been continued by the prosecutor for thirteen months without any prosecution or disposition, the case is treated as if nolled and the court records erased.[45]

How does a juvenile seal/expunge a record?

             In Connecticut the term “erasure” is used for the removal of court records.[46]  The erasure procedure is different for juvenile offenders and for youthful offenders.  For juvenile offenders, the juvenile, or his legal guardian, may file a petition in Superior Court for erasure of the juvenile record after two years have elapsed since the date of discharge from court supervision or the custody of any agency to whom the child was committed by court, such as the Department of Children and Families, provided that the juvenile had no subsequent juvenile proceedings.[47]  However, if the juvenile was convicted of a “serious juvenile offense,” as defined in the statute, the juvenile must wait four years to petition for erasure.[48]  In any event, the juvenile does not need an attorney to petition for erasure.[49] If the juvenile meets the following criteria, Connecticut law requires the court to order the records to be erased:

  1. Child has reached eighteen years of age;
  2. At least two years, or four years in the case of an serious juvenile offense, have elapsed from the date of discharge from court supervision or from the custody of any agency the court committed the child to;
  3. No juvenile delinquency or adult criminal proceedings are currently pending against the child;
  4. Child has not been convicted of a delinquent act during the waiting period; and
  5. Child has not been convicted of a criminal act during the waiting period.[50]

            Once the erasure has occurred, it is as if the juvenile was never arrested.[51]  Connecticut law also allows the court to order an erasure before the waiting period has been completed upon a showing of good cause.[52]  With respect to youthful offenders, all police and court records are erased automatically upon the youth reaching the age of twenty-one, provided that the youth has not been convicted of a felony at any point subsequent to being adjudged a youthful offender.[53]

Who has access to erased juvenile records?

            Generally, erased juvenile records cannot be distributed.[54]  If the court finds that it is in the best interest of the child, the fact that a child had an erased court record can be disclosed.[55]  The Department of Corrections and the Bureau of Pardons and Parole also have access to erased juvenile records.[56]

How may a juvenile describe a record that has been erased?                     

            After a juvenile record is erased, it is as if the finding of delinquency and the arrest never occurred, so the juvenile does not need to disclose anything regarding the court record.[57]    

Employment Opportunities

Can juvenile records be viewed for employment purposes?

            Juvenile records cannot be viewed for employment purposes.  All juvenile court records are confidential.[58] However, juvenile records involving delinquency proceedings, or any part thereof, may be disclosed upon order of the court to any person who has a legitimate interest in the information and is identified in such order.[59]

Can employers view juvenile records that have been erased?

            No, employers cannot view juvenile records that have been erased.  If the court finds that it is in the best interest of the child, the fact that a child had an erased court record can be disclosed, but no other information may be released.[60]

What type of employers can disqualify applicants based upon juvenile records?

            None, since the records are not available, except under certain circumstances by court order.[61]

How should juveniles respond to inquiries about a record on job applications?

            Given that Connecticut does not consider a juvenile adjudication of delinquency to be a conviction,[62]a juvenile or youthful offender who has been adjudged guilty of the crimes charged may legally and honestly answer “no” when asked by employers or others whether they ever have been convicted of a crime.[63]

Collateral Consequences Affecting Elementary & Secondary Education Students

Can a complaint or charge brought against a juvenile affect elementary or high school education?       

            A student can be disciplined for the behavior underlying a complaint or charge brought against the student.  Upon arrest of any person ages seven to twenty-one for a class A misdemeanor, felony, or sale/carrying/brandishing a firearm facsimile, the police department is required by Connecticut law to report that arrest to the superintendent of the school district where the student resides.[64]  The superintendent may then disclose that information to the principal of the school where the student attends, who is authorized to disclose information to support staff for the purposes of modifying the student’s educational program, disciplining the student or determining whether the student poses a risk to himself, other people or school property.[65]  Additionally, if an expulsion hearing is held against the student, the local board of education can request police testimony at the expulsion hearing.[66]  

If a youth is charged or a complaint has been brought against him or her, how long can a suspension or expulsion from elementary or secondary education last?

            A student in Connecticut can only be suspended or expelled if the student engaged in conduct that violated a publicized policy of the Board of Education or the conduct was seriously disruptive of the educational process or endangered persons or property.[67] Expulsion is mandatory when a student is shown to have possessed a firearm, deadly weapon or other dangerous instrument or offered a controlled substance for sale or distribution on school grounds.[68]

            During a suspension, a student may be removed from the classroom for up to ten days.[69]  A child may be expelled in Connecticut for up to one calendar year, provided that procedural protections are followed.[70]  Mandatory expulsions should be one calendar year, but may be modified on a case-by-case basis.[71]  If, as a result of a delinquency conviction, a student is in a residential placement, including Connecticut Juvenile Training School (CJTS),[72]for twelve months, the school district cannot expel the student for additional time based on the same offense.[73]

If a youth is suspended from school because of a charge or a complaint, is there any relief available?       

            Students under the age of sixteen who are expelled will be offered alternative educational opportunities during the period of expulsion.[74]  If the child is between the ages of sixteen and eighteen during the expulsion, the child will be offered the opportunity to continue his education provided the student complies with the conditions established by the local regional board of education.[75]  However, the student will not be offered alternative educational opportunities if the student was expelled for a firearm or controlled substance.[76]

            Additionally, when holding a hearing, schools are required to follow the state Uniform Administrative Procedure Act (UAPA)[77]which specifies notice, evidence, record keeping and appeal rights.[78]

If a youth has been expelled or suspended because they were adjudicated delinquent or admitted to committing a crime, is there any relief available?

            The Connecticut legislature has introduced a bill that will encourage youth who have been adjudicated delinquent and served time better access to reentry in order to continue education.[79]  Currently, the bill[80]will “require districts to re-enroll youthful offenders as soon as they are released from jail.  If the juvenile faces expulsion, the time they were locked up must count towards the expulsion period.”[81]

Can a youth be suspended or face expulsion from elementary or secondary school, even if the records have been erased?

            In terms of child whose delinquency case is dismissed and, consequently, automatically erased, school can still discipline if it knew of the underlying behavior prior to the erasure.[82]  A youth whose delinquency case resulted in a conviction and was later erased, would not usually be disciplined after his records were erased because records would not be erased until two years after discharge from court supervision.[83]

Are there any collateral consequences affecting access to state higher education for a juvenile that has been adjudicated delinquent or charged with a crime?

Undergraduate Programs: State-funded higher education includes Central Connecticut State University, Eastern Connecticut State University, Western Connecticut State University, Southern Connecticut State University, and the University of Connecticut.[84]  The application for undergraduate admission at the University of Connecticut asks the following:

“Have you ever been adjudicated guilty or convicted of a misdemeanor, felony, or other crime?”[85] Because the application asks about adjudications, the individual will have to disclose a juvenile adjudication.[86]

Graduate Programs: The graduate programs for law in Connecticut ask the applicant to disclose details and information related to convictions.[87]  In Connecticut, an adjudication by a juvenile court is not considered a conviction and therefore would not have to be disclosed on applications asking for conviction information.[88]  Furthermore, the University of Connecticut’s graduate admissions application specifically states,

“University of Connecticut policy prohibits discrimination in education, employment, and in the provision of services on account of . . . criminal records that are not job related.”[89]

If a youth applies for state financial aid is disclosure of juvenile arrests or adjudications required?                                                         

            To apply for state grant money an applicant must complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), which asks the following: “Have you been convicted for possession or sale of illegal drugs for an offense that occurred while you were receiving federal student aid (grants, loans, and/or work-study)?”[90]Because it asks only about convictions, the applicant need not disclose any juvenile adjudications. 

Collateral Consequences to Receipt of Public Benefits & Privileges

Will a juvenile record affect receipt of public benefits including, welfare benefits, food stamps, teen parents’ custody of their children, medical care, etc.?

            Juveniles applying for federal benefits, including food stamps, are ineligible based on convictions of certain acts, including drug violations.[91]  However, as stated previously, juvenile delinquency adjudications are not considered convictions in Connecticut, and therefore would not result in the denial of federal benefits.[92]

Will a juvenile record affect the chances of becoming a foster parent or adopting a child?

            In Connecticut, all household members sixteen years of age or older must submit to both state and federal background checks when seeking to foster or adopt a child.[93]  The applicant must consent to releasing any criminal information, including information in which an arrest was not even made, in order to apply to foster or adopt a child.[94]

Can a juvenile record affect eligibility for public housing?

            Under federal guidelines, households that include a juvenile who must register as a sex offender for life will be banned from public housing.[95]  Households which include a member who has been convicted, as an adult or juvenile, of manufacturing or otherwise producing methamphetamine on the premises of a federally assisted housing program will also be banned permanently from admission to public housing.[96]

            In addition, a household may also be banned from public housing if a housing provider determines that a member iscurrently engaged in the illegal use of a controlled substance or if the housing provider has a reasonable belief that a household member’spattern of illegal drug use may threaten the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premise by other residents.[97]  When considering whether to admit a household that was formerly rejected due to a member’s illegal drug usage, the housing provider may consider a member’s rehabilitation as evidenced by completing or participating in treatment.[98]

            A housing provider may also exclude any household which includes a member currently engaging in, or has engaged in during a reasonable time before the admissions decision, any drug-related or violent criminal activity or other criminal activity which would adversely affect the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents, the owner, or public housing agency employees.[99]

Can an arrest or adjudication of a juvenile household member result in a family being evicted from public housing?

            If a child engages in criminal activity on the premises of public housing, an eviction may result and prevent any further public housing services from being provided.[100] Criminal activities that could result in eviction include: drug-related offenses;[101]behavior that threatens the health, safety, or right to a peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents;[102]abuse or a pattern of abuse of alcohol that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents.[103]

Can a juvenile record affect a driver’s license or permit?                         

            A juvenile record cannot affect a driver’s license or permit. 

Collateral Consequences for National Service through National Guard/Reserve

            The National Guard is interested in any incidents with law enforcement officers, including juvenile adjudications.[104]  The National Guard/Reserve states that applicants are eligible for enlistment if “they have no record of arrest, adjudication, conviction, probation, community or public service in lieu of conviction, (includes deferred sentence), pending charge, parole, or suspended sentence.”[105]  Even those adjudications that have been expunged are required to be disclosed by an applicant.[106]

Special Offender Registries (Sex, Domestic Violence, Predatory)                                                                                        

When will a juvenile have to register as a sex offender?

            A juvenile who was adjudicated delinquent through juvenile court does not have to register as a sex offender.[107]

Who has access to the sex offender registry?

           The sex offender registry is maintained by the Department of Public Safety and is a public record that can be accessed during normal business hours.[108]

Is there any relief for those who are on the sex offender registry?

            The court may order the Department of Public Safety to restrict the dissemination of the registration information for law enforcement purposes only and to restrict public access if the offender was convicted or found not guilty by reason of mental disease or defect.[109]  However, the court must find that the dissemination of the registration information is not necessary for public safety and that publication of the restricted material would likely reveal the identify of the victim within the community the victim resides.[110]

What information is disclosed?  If juvenile information is disclosed, what means are used to disclose the information (e.g. website, newspapers, etc.)?                                                                             

            Since juveniles tried in juvenile court are not required to register,[111]the only individuals under eighteen whose information would be disclosed are those who were tried in adult court.[112]

[1]2007 Conn. Pub. Acts 1641 (Spec. Sess.), See also Melinda Tahus,Age Raised, July 9, 2007, available at visited May 12, 2011); Campaign for Youth Justice, The Connecticut Success Story: Connecticut Returns 16 and 17 Year Olds to Juvenile Court Jurisdiction(Mar, 2011), available at visited May 12, 2011).
[2]Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 46b-121, 54-76o (2011). 
[3]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(d) (2011).
[4]State of Conn. Judicial Branch, Juvenile Matters Courts, Directions to Connecticut Courts and Judicial Branch Facilities, ,available at visited May 12, 2011).
[5]State of Conn. Judicial Branch, Court Support Services Division, Juvenile Residential Services (Juvenile Detention)available at visited May 12, 2011).
[7]State of Conn., Office of Policy and Management, Juvenile Justice and Youth Developmentavailable at visited May 16, 2011).  Male juveniles who are tried as adults are housed at Manson Youth Institution while female juveniles tried as adults are housed at York Correctional Institution.  Both facilities are run by the Department of Corrections.  Id.
[8]Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 46b-120(4)(B) (2013).  A child under 7 years old cannot be tried in juvenile court, and there are extensive provisions regarding the competence of older children to be tried, convicted, adjudicated, or subject to court disposition by the juvenile court. See generally  Connecticut General Assembly, Office of Legislative Research, Summary of 2012 Public Acts, available at (last visited March 4, 2013), pp. 352-355.
[9]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-121 (2011); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011) (erasure of police and court records).
[10]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-76b (2011) (defining youthful offender); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-76c (2011) (Eligibility to be adjudged a youthful offender). 
[11]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-76o (2011) (erasure of police and court records of youthful offenders).
[12]Conn. Gen. Stat.. § 54-76k (2011).
[13]Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 46b-120(10)-(11) (2013).
[14]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-120 (10) (2013).
[15]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-141(a)(2) (2011); but see Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-141(c) (2011) (commitment may be extended if in the best interests of the child or the community).
[16]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-120 (12) (2013).
[17]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-127(a) (2011). There is extensive legislation governing which type of felonies can be transferred to adult court, by whom, under what circumstances, and pursuant to what procedure.  For a full discussion, see Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-127 (2013) and Connecticut General Assembly, Office of Legislative Research, Summary of 2012 Public Acts, pp. 357-358, available at (last visited March 4, 2013).  
[18]House Democrats of Conn., Connecticut Juvenile Jurisdiction, Planning and Implementation Committee, Final Report. (February 12, 2007)available at visited May 16, 2011).
[19]2007 Conn. Pub. Acts 1641 (Spec. Sess.)
[20]See Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 46b-120(1)(A)(ii); (4) (2013); see also 2007 Conn. Pub. Acts 1641 (Spec. Sess.).   
[21]State of Conn., Office of Policy and Management, Juvenile Justice and Youth Developmentavailable at visited May 16, 2011); see also Janet Williams et al, The Connecticut Juvenile Justice System: A Guide for Youth and Families, at 21, visited May 16, 2011).
[22]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-140(b) (2011); see also State of Conn., Office of Policy and Management, Juvenile Justice and Youth Developmentavailable at visited May 16, 2011).
[23]See In re Jan Carlos D., 297 Conn. 16, 24, 997 A.2d 471 (2010).
[24]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-133(a) (2011).
[25]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(b) (2011).
[26]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-133(a) (2011).
[27]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(g) (2011).
[28]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(d) (2011).
[29]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(d) (agencies that are authorized to access juvenile court records if involved in the case).
[30]Id; Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233h (2011).
[31]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233h (2011).
[33]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233h (2011).
[34]State of Conn., Office of Policy and Management, Juvenile Justice and Youth Developmentavailable at visited May 16, 2011).
[35]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(d) (2011). 
[37]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(d) (2011).
[38]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(j) (2011).
[39]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(e) (f)(2011).
[40] Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(d) (amended in June 12, 2013 special session, per PA 12-133-sHB 5365  § 34).
[41]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(a) (2011).
[42]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011).
[44]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-133a(b) (2011).
[46]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011).
[47]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011).
[49]See Id.
[51]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011).
[52]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2013).
[53]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-76o (2011).
[54]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011).
[55]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011).
[56]Att’y Gen. of Conn. Formal Op. 2009-012 (Nov. 20, 2009), available at visited May 16, 2011).
[57]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011). 
[58]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124 (2011).
[59]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-124(e) (2011).  See In re Sheldon G., 583 A.2d 112 (1990) (“. . . only a showing of compelling need could justify nonconsensual disclosure of any information contained in juvenile records for the purposes of civil litigation involving an adult who was formerly the subject of adjudications in the Superior Court for Juvenile Matters.”).
[60]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011).
[61]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011).
[62]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011). 
[63]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011) (juvenile); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-76k (2011) (youthful offender). 
[64]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233h (2011).
[66]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233h (2011).
[67]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233c (2011).
[68]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233d (2011).  Additionally, if the student possessed a firearm, used a firearm or other weapon in the commission of a crime or sold a controlled substance on school grounds, expulsion would be mandatory.  Id.
[69]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233a(d) (2011).
[70]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233a(e) (2011); Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 10-233d(2)-(3) (2011).
[71]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233d(2) (2011).
[72], State of Conn., Department of Children and Families, Connecticut Juvenile Training School Description and Requirements, ,available at visited May 16, 2011).
[73]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233d(l) (2011).
[74]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233d(d) (2011).
[76]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233d(e) (2011).
[77]See Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 4-166 to 4-189g (2011).
[78]Judith Lohman, School Expulsion Procedure, 2002-R-0849, Oct. 15, 2002, available at visited May 16, 2011).
[79]Jacqueline Rabe, Legislation Aims to Help Juvenile Offenders Return to School, Connecticut Mirror (May 4, 2011), available at visited May 16, 2011).
[80]State of Conn. General Assembly, Substitute H. B. No. 6325 (Mar. 31, 2011), An Act Concerning Juvenile Reentry and Education, Jan, Sess. 2011, , available at visited May 16, 2011).
[81]Jacqueline Rabe, Legislation Aims to Help Juvenile Offenders Return to School, Connecticut Mirror (May 4, 2011), available at visited May 16, 2011) (“Advocates say many students each year attempt to return to school just to find out their expulsion is just beginning. Often students are forced to wait a whole school year after they are released to get back into the classroom.”).
[82]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233c (2011) (suspension); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233d (2011) (expulsion).
[83]See Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011).
[84]See Connecticut State University System, visited May 16, 2011); University of Connecticut, visited May 16, 2011).
[85]University of Connecticut, Application for Undergraduate Admission at 3, available at visited May 16, 2011).
[86]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011) (juvenile); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-76k (2011) (youthful offender); see also In re Jan Carlos D., 297 Conn., 24.
[87]  University of Connecticut School of Law, Application for Admission at 2, available at visited May 16, 2011).
[88]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011) (juvenile); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-76k (2011) (youthful offender); see also In re Jan Carlos D., 297 Conn., 24.
[89]University of Connecticut, Graduate Admissions Applicationavailable at visited May 16, 2011).
[90]Free Application for Federal Student Aid at 3, available at visited May 16, 2011).
[91]21 U.S.C. 862 (2011).
[92]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146 (2011) (juvenile); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-76k (2011) (youthful offender).
[93]See Dept. of Children and Families, Office of Foster Care Services, Private Provider Therapeutic Foster Care, Background Check Guideat 8December 2008(Revised Apr. 6, 2009), available at visited May 16, 2011).
[94]Id.   The background check release form states that the following information is consented to be released: “Any and all information and/or records concerning me (including, but not limited to law enforcement records, emergency service provider records, investigative records, court records, motor vehicle records and/or military records) and/or opinions concerning me, or any part thereof, including, but not limited to the following:  medical and/or mental health information and/or records, including but not limited to diagnosis and/or treatment information and/or records; information and/or records in which I am referenced as a victim, complainant and/or witness (including information and/or records concerning incidents for which a complaint/call was made and/or responded to, but no arrest was made); criminal information and/or records concerning me; and/or arrest information and/or records concerning me.”  Id.
[95]42 U.S.C. § 13663(a) (2010).
[96]42 U.S.C. § 1437n(f)(1) (2010); 24 C.F.R. § 966.4(l)(5)(i)(A) (2010).
[97]24 C.F.R. § 966.4(l)(2)(iii) (2010); 24 C.F.R. § 966.4(l)(5)(i)(B) (2010) (“In addition, the lease must provide that a PHA may evict a family when the PHA determines that a household member is illegally using a drug”).
[98]42 U.S.C. § 13661(b)(2) (2010); 24 C.F.R. § 982.553(a)(1)(i)(A) (2010) (The household may be readmitted if “the evicted household member who engaged in drug-related criminal activity has successfully completed a supervised drug rehabilitation program approved by the PHA”).
[100]24 C.F.R. 5.858.
[101]24 C.F.R. 5.858.
[102]24 C.F.R. 5.859.
[103]24 C.F.R. 5.860.
[104]Army National Guard, Army National Guard Enlistment Program FY-07 Enlistment Criteria at 29, available at visited April 17, 2011).
[106]Id. at 30 (“The process of removing the “initial conviction” or “other adverse disposition” so that under state law the applicant has no record of conviction or adverse adjudication [and] despite the legal effect of this action, it does not change the fact that the applicant committed the offense or criminal act.  Applicants must reveal the underlying facts of the conviction and may ultimately require an enlistment waiver depending on the level of the offense.”).
[107]See Sandra Norman-Eady, Sexual Offender Registration,2006-R-0030, Jan. 11, 2006, available at visited May 16, 2011).
[108]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-258(a)(1) (2011); see also State of Conn., Dept. of Public Safety, Division of State Police,Connecticut Sex Offender Registry, , available at visited May 16, 2011).
[109]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-255(a) (2011).
[110]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-255(a) (2011).
[111]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-258(a)(1) (2011).
[112]Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-252 (2011); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-253 (2011); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-254 (2011). 

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